REDUCING FUEL COSTS

Diesel Engine Manufacturers Continue To Improve The Fuel Efficiency Of Their Engines Though the recent failure of the OPEC nations to agree on limiting crude oil production may eventually result in lowering fuel costs somewhat, fuel expenses and consumption will continue to remain a major cost factor for all vessel owners. As a result, diesel engine designers and manufacturers continue development of their product lines with emphasis on further improvements in specific fuel consumption and improved capability to burn heavy fuel.

The diesel manufacturers are accomplishing the lower sfc in a number of ways, including more efficient turbocharger/compressor designs, larger bore-stroke ratios, higher injection pressures and BMEPs, and redesigned components.

As a result of aggressive research and design efforts on the part of the engine manufacturers, prudent decisions on fuel selection by vessel operators, and technological advances in shipboard fuel treatment, modern diesel-powered merchant ships are capable of operating on the low-grade marine fuels that are currently available.

It seems that the diesel engine design efforts in the near future will continue the trend to convert the maximum amounts of energy in the fuel to usable energy. Shipowners will continue to adopt the most efficient engines available and will develop system designs that will result in overall fuel consumption to such low levels a 50 percent of the levels common in the U.S. merchant fleet prior to 1973.

These systems will probably incorporate waste-heat steam generators, induction turbines for driving the ship's service generator, and jacket water motivated auxiliaries such as distilling units and absorption type air conditioning systems. Although the recent stabilization and lowering of marine fuel oil prices have lowered the immediate incentive for designing power plants for ultra-low fuel consumption, the maritime industry has been conditioned to expect engines and systems with the lowest possible sfc.

Shipowners know that lower fuel consumption normally converts to lower required freight rates and, given the current depressed rates on most trade routes, will continue to order ships with the lowest possible annual fuel costs.

The following review is a compendium of engines, components, and systems for reducing fuel costs in powering modern vessels. For additional information and free literature on any manufacturer's product line, circle the appropriate number into the back of this issue.

BMV MASKIN BMV Maskin A.S. in Norway (formerly Bergen Diesel) has a new heavy-fuel diesel engine for marine propulsion and auxiliary applications. The engine, designated the B type, underwent extensive testing at the Bergen factory, and met all design and operational expectations. The B type engine development was the result of market research that indicated the need for a medium- speed engine with an output of about 500 bhp per cylinder. It is intended to augment the company's product line by offering an engine with twice the output per cylinder as its K type, which is BMV's most popular production engine. The market research also identified the need for the new engine to be compatible with the fuels that will be available to the marine market in the foreseeable future.

The B engine's design is based on fuels with a viscosity of 700 cSt at 50 C, and a specific weight of 1.01 grams per milliliter, assuming the fuel treatment system is compatible. The company relied heavily on the experience it had gained during the 20 years of delivering the heavy-fuel K type engines.

Design criteria for the B type gave low operating costs higher priority than lowest possible initial cost. The criteria included: high reliability and long overhaul intervals on lower- quality, heavy fuels; low fuel consumption; low wear rates; good component access; and easy servicing of components.

The B type engines are conservatively designed, four-stroke cycle diesels fitted with turbochargers and intercoolers. Their bore is 320 mm, with a stroke of 360 mm, engine speed of 720/750 rpm, BMEP of 18-20.3 bar, mcr of 425- 500 bhp per cylinder, and maximum firing pressure of 150 bar. The inline version is available with 6, 8, or 9 cylinders; the V version comes with 12,16, or 18 cylinders. The output range is 2,550 to 9,000 bhp.

B & W ALPHA B&W Alpha Diesel A/S in Frederikshavn, Denmark, a company of the M.A.N.-B&W Group, designs, manufactures, markets, and services complete vessel propulsion systems. The company has completed the integration of the in-line and V versions of the 20/27 M.A.N.-B&W engine, and the in-line 32/36 M.A.N.- B&W engine with existing Alpha controllable-pitch propellers and gearboxes. This has resulted in fourcycle diesel propulsion systems developing as little as 680 bhp at 1,000 rpm, which can burn heavy fuel of up to 2,100 sec. Redwood 1 at 100 F.

Another series being offered is the 20/27-VO propulsion system. While the engine itself is not new, this system incorporated the new Alphatronic I and Alphatronic II, the Danish company's latest electronic remote control systems.

BOMBARDIER/ALCO Alco Power of Auburn, N.Y., now a subsidiary of Bombardier of Canada, manufactures the Model 251 diesel engine. Latest improvements to the series are said to reduce fuel consumption, lower maintenance costs, and enhance engine/component reliability. Major components involved are pistons, cylinder heads, and camshafts.

In order to establish viability of production tooling, Alco has been offering preproduction sets of deepbowl pistons in limited quantities, as well as cylinder heads and camshafts. Full production of these components is expected during 1986.

With a 12.5:1 compression ratio, the pistons can be used in all Model 251 engines that are equipped with 123-degree or 140-degree overlap camshafts. In laboratory tests, up to six percent fuel savings were realized under controlled conditions.

While actual savings will vary according to engine ratings, average service throughout a typical duty cycle are predicted at about 2- to 2 V2 -percent reduction in fuel consumption. CATERPILLAR Caterpillar recently announced a horsepower increase of approximately 10 percent for its 3500 Series marine propulsion engines and marine generator sets. These higher ratings and a 3-percent improvement in fuel economy have been achieved by strengthening valves, cylinder blocks, heads, and fuel system components.

The 3500 Series engines, with a bore of 170 mm and stroke of 190 mm, are offered with 8, 12, and 16 cylinders V configuration, 4-stroke marine engines with ratings from 705 to 2,000 bhp for propulsion and from 700 to 1,090 kw for continuous electrical service. Operating success of the Series, which was introduced in 1981, is based on large displacement and conservative rating levels, high-strength components, fuel economy, fast response, reliable performance, and simple maintenance and repair procedures. Cat's newest engine line, the 280-mm by 300-mm 3600 Series, has been field tested in both marine propulsion and generator set applications. The in-line 3606 and 3608 are currently available, and will be followed by the V 3612 in mid-1986 and the V 3616 soon after.

The 3600 Series is a mediumspeed engine with capability to burn blended or heavy fuel. Initital residual fuel specification is 1,500 seconds Redwood 1 viscosity, followed by 3,500 seconds capability in 1987. Continued development toward even higher viscosity levels is planned.

All 3600 models are turbocharged and aftercooled, four-stroke engines with unit fuel injectors providing pressures of 20,000. The marine propulsion rating at 1,000 rpm is 375 bhp per cylinder, with initial specific fuel consumption of 0.327 pounds per bhp hour, with two water pumps as well as lube oil and fuel pumps. Additional ratings of 350 bhp per cylinder at 900 rpm, 267 bhp at 750 rpm, and 207 bhp per cylinder at 720 rpm are also available.

COLT INDUSTRIES The Fairbanks Morse Engine Division of Colt Industries now offers the Colt/Pielstick PC-2.6 L and V, and the high-horsepower PC-4.2 V diesel engines. The PC-2.6, with ratings from 4,422 to 13,266 bhp, is a development of the PC-2 Series medium- speed engine with the same general dimensions. The PC-2.6 can burn all heavy fuels available on the market. It is fitted with watercooled gages and exaust valves especially adapted to the fuel's vanadium content. The advanced technology of this engine enables it to burn the poorest foreseeable fuels without major modificaions.

The Fairbanks 38D8'/8 opposedpiston engine is offered in both blower-scavenged and turbocharged versions, with power ranges from 708 to 3,500 bhp at 750 rpm, and 920 to 4,200 bhp at 900 rpm. These engines have always enjoyed high fuel efficiency, and sophisticated control and monitoring systems are providing even better fuel economy from them.

Fairbanks Morse continues to produce the Colt/Pielstick PC-2.3V and PC2.5V diesel engines with ratings from 6,420 to 11,700 bhp at 520 rpm. These engines are capable of burning heavier grades of residual fuels.

The Colt/Pielstick PC-4.2V, rated from 16,270 to 29,286 bhp, is able to burn residual fuels of up to 4,000 seconds Redwood 1 at 100 F, with a 400 ppm vanadium content.

CUMMINS The first marine models of its new B and C Series of lower horsepower diesel engines, introduced during 1985 by Cummins Engine Company of Columbus, Ind., expands the marine product line to 61 bhp at the low end.

The B Series will consist of fourand six-cylinder models with displacements of 3.9 and 5.9 liters, ranging from 75 to 152 bhp, rated 2,500 rpm for intermittent duty and 2,800 rpm for maximum duty. Now available, the B Series is capable of providing main propulsion in a wide variety of marine applications. The C Series propulsion engines, which will be available in the second half of this year, comprises sixcylinder units with a displacement of 3.8 liters, ranging from 158 to 204 bhp.

Cummins has also increased engine horsepower ratings for its NT855-M and KT855-M marine models. The NT855-M is now available rated 360 bhp at 2,100 rpm, up from the former rating of 295 bhp at 1,950 rpm. Its continuous-duty rating has been increased from 270 bhp to 300 bhp at 1,800 rpm.

The KT19-M's intermittent rating of 510 bhp at 2,100 rpm has been available since 1984. Its continuousduty rating has now been increased from 365 bhp to 425 bhp at 1,800 rpm.

Cummins' intermittent ratings are intended for continuous use in variable-load applications where full power is limited to six hours out of every 12 hours of operation. The continuous-duty rating is intended for applications requiring uninterrupted service at full power. These ratings can be certified to ABS design criteria.

DAIHATSU A new type of engine, the DL Series, which features low fuel consumption, low quality fuel burning capability, and low load operability, has been developed by Daihatsu Diesel Manufacturing Company Ltd. of Japan, represented in North America by Daihatsu Diesel (U.S.A.) Inc.

The DL Series engines—DL-20, DL-26, DL-28, and DL-32—are a medium-speed type of 600 to 1,000 rpm, with outputs covering the range from 750 to 3,000 bhp. They are suitable for botb main propulsion and auxiliary generating applications. Extensive testing under various conditions on all parts of these en- gines was carried out at the Daihatsu laboratory and factory in Osaka before they were placed on the market. The company's traditional design concepts—simple and sturdy construction, easy maintenance, and lower maintenance costs—are fully incorporated in the DL Series. The company reports an increasing number of orders for the DL engines from shipowners overseas.

DETROIT DIESEL Fuel savings of up to six percent over previous high-efficiency models, depending on the application, are claimed for an innovative air induction system available for its new Silver 149 Series engines by the Detroit Diesel Allison Division of General Motors.

Known as the bypass blower, here's how it operates. In a chamber between the entire intercooler and blower is a pressure valve. When blower work is required to increase air flow, as in engine start-up or as an aid in transient response, the valve is closed. As the engine speed and the ability of the turbocharger to provide the necessary air flow increases, the valve begins to open. This permits a portion of the blower discharge air to recirculate through the blower. This process continues until the valve is fully opened and the air pressure on the inlet and outlet sides of the blower has been equalized.

The engine blower is a gear-driven component that requires a certain amount of parasitic horsepower to turn and compress the incoming air. When the inlet and outlet pressures equalize, the pumping action of the blower has been eliminated, thus it continues to rotate or freewheel but does not work. It is here that the horsepower reduction realized by elimination of the blower compressing work results in increased fuel economy. As the horsepower previously required to operate the blower is taken off the flywheel, there is an increase in engine performance without an increase in fuel consumption.

DEUTZ/MWM Two major German diesel engine manufacturers, Klockner-Humboldt- Deutz AG of Cologne, and Motoren-Werke Mannheim AG of Mannheim, recently merged to form Deutz/MWM. The new engine group will offer one of the broadest power ranges of diesels in the world.

This merger brings together two engine builders with a total of more than 230 years of experience, as well as a combined reputation for quality, reliability, and service excellence. The KHD Group's Engine Division will be restructed with all activities involving the water-cooled engine business being combined at Mannheim. KHD will relocate its medium and big engine activities in development, sales, and parts manufacturing to Mannheim in combination with the engine program of MWM. The medium-sized and big engine built in Mannheim and Cologne will be manufactured and marketed under the trade name Deutz/MWM.

The formation of Deutz/MWM will offer an expanded range of marine and stationary prime movers, for propulsion and electric power generation, to world markets including North America.

The North American headquarters of the new company is located in Montreal, with a division based in Atlanta.

ELECTRO-MOTIVE A continuing fuel economy fuel improvement program by the Electro- Motive Division of General Motors with its 645 Series two-stroke diesel engines during the past few years has achieved impressive reductions in specific fuel consumption.

A more efficient turbocharger, increased horsepower ratings, and traditional reliability mark EMD's latest engines, the FB Series. The 645FB is a turbocharged and aftercooled, two-stroke, uniflow-scavenged, 45-degree V diesel. It has a bore of 230.2 mm and stroke of 254 mm.

EMD reports that the 645FB develops up to 4,000 bhp at 900 rpm, an increase of 400 bhp over the predecessor 645EC engine. To achieve the higher horsepower, the FB Series incorporates design improvements involving the turbocharger, crankcase, fuel injector, exhaust valve, engine cylinder retainer system, and firing ring piston design. Many of the elements contributing to the FB's ability to produce higher horsepower have already been proven on predecessor models. These include the rocking wrist pin and bearing assembly that alternately loads and unloads multiple bearing surfaces contained on a single wrist pin and bearing.

EMD states that the 645FB Series is the result of painstaking research and development, with particular attention paid to retaining reliability and maintainability while achieving new levels of output and fuel economy.

GENERAL ELECTRIC The fuel-efficient, four-stroke 7FDM marine diesel engines manufactured by General Electric's Diesel Power Products Division in Erie, Pa., now offer ratings from 1,525 to 4,000 bhp. Its 8-cylinder model has an output of 1,525 bhp at 90 rpm, and a rating of 1,800 bhp at 1,050 rpm. The 7FDM 12-cylinder engines are rated 2,550 bhp at 900 rpm and 3,000 bhp at 1,050 rpm. The 16- cylinder models carry ratings of 3,400 bhp at 900 rpm and 4,000 bhp at 1,050 rpm.

GE's three-ring piston design is said to reduce lube oil consumption significantly. This design, using two compression rings and one oil control ring, also reduces ring wear for longer periods between overhauls. The development of turbochargers that operate more effectively in marine service is said to improve accelerations characteristics and further improve fuel efficiency. The life expectancy of connection rod bearings and their crankshaft journals has been increased with the development of a grooveless upper rod bearing half, while welded-in, stainless steel, 30-degree-value seats improve cylinder head life.

GEORGE ENGINE George Engine Company's "bypass operation"—the upgrading of a Detroit Diesel 149 Series engine from its normally aspirated operation to a turbocharged, intercooled, blower-bypass configuration using the latest Detroit Diesel components— is said to provide a reduction in fuel consumption of as much as 11.5 percent. From its facilities in Baton Rouge, Morgan City, Lafayette, and Harvey, La., the company also provides custom power packages and a broad range of services for marine and offshore applications. The blower-bypass is a simple butterfly valve arrangement that automatically diverts the incoming air around the Roots blower when turbocharger boost has reached a sufficient level. With the blower bypassed, it no longer imposes an accessory load on the engine; the horsepower that was previously required is now available at the flywheel to do useful work.

The TIB configuration, with a smaller fuel injector, produces the same horsepower at the same rpm as the NA arrangement, but does it with significantly less fuel. Alternatively, the owner may elect to use larger injectors to achieve greater horsepower output, and still at a competitively low specific fuel consumption. ISOTTA FRASCHINI Isotta Fraschini SpA, a company of the VM Group in Italy, designs and manufactures a broad range of diesel engines for various applications. The ID 32 Series for marine propulsion offers a power range from 180 to 400 bhp at 2,700 to 3,000 rpm.

The ID 38 Series is rated from 180 to 400 bhp at 2,700-2,900 rpm for workboat propulsion, and 500 bhp at 3,000 rpm in military applications. The ID 36 Series has a power range of from 300 to 1,320 bhp at 1,650-1,800 rpm for workboats, and up to 1,600 bhp at 1,900 rpm for military vessels.

The ID 36 engines are available in V configuration with 6, 8, 12, and 16 cylinders; a 10-cylinder version is under development. All production engines in this series are available in amagnetic versions.

Isotta also manufactures, under license, the Paxman Diesel model PV2000 engine, which has a power range from 1,000 to 4,500 bhp at 1,600 rpm.

KRUPP MaK DIESEL According to MaK, there are different ways to improve the total economy of a vessel's propulsion plant. Items that can be fully influenced by the engine maker are: reduce the specific fuel consumption; design the engines for the lowest grades of heavy fuels that will be available in the future; and provide heavy-fuel engines for a wide output range in order to generate auxiliary power on board ships with engines using the same low-grade heavy fuels burned in the main propulsion diesels.

MaK offers heavy-fuel engines in the power range from 740 to 9,000 kw (about 1,000 to 12,240 bhp). Each power demand can be covered by in-line engines with a minimum number of cylinders.

Developments to reduce fuel consumption were introduced for MaK's large-bore, four-stroke M601 engine with 580-mm bore and 600- mm stroke. Improvements in the past two years regarding optimizing injection and scavenging brought the specific fuel consumption of an 8M601 engine with an output of 8,000 kw (10,880 bhp) down to 125 grams per brake horsepower-hour. Reliability of the engine was not affected because the measure of increasing the firing pressure was not yet used.

Further improvements in economy are possible for the peripheral equipment, such as improvements in propulsion efficiency by means of low-speed propellers, and waste heat recovery by means of using exhaust gas and cooling water energy for generating electricity in turbogenerators. M . A . N . - B &W DIESEL M.A.N.-B&W Diesel, as the world's largest designer of marine diesel engines, has successfully developed engines with the highest thermal efficiency available, while at the same time maintaining a very high level of service reliability. With the introduction of the MC low-speed series, M.A.N.-B&W has brought the fuel consumption down to 118 grams per brake horsepowerhour, which, compared with the 156 g/bhph 10 years ago, means a reduction of about 25 percent. At the same time the corresponding revolutions of the direct-coupled propeller have been reduced from 114 rpm to 60 rpm, which has led to an increase in the propeller efficiency of 12-15 percent. These factors combined mean a total saving in the fuel oil consumption on propulsion engines alone of up to 40 percent.

The new four-stroke, heavy-fuel L58/64 engine will be produced as in-line units with six, seven, eight, and nine cylinders, providing a power range (mcr) from 9,900 to 14,850 bhp.

The L58/64 is a logical upgrading of M.A.N, medium-speed engines that have rendered excellent service in operation on heavy fuel for almost 20 years. This early understanding of heavy fuel burning characteristics was further extended by the 40/45 engine type, which in the 1970s introduced a modern concept with high firing pressure, the basis for low fuel consumption.

During the development of the L58/64 engine, particular emphasis was placed on the following: low fuel consumption; high reliability in unrestricted operation; simple and easy maintenance; and adaptability to varying operating and environmental conditions as well as fuel ignition qualities.

MITSUBISHI Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. in Japan has developed two new types of its UE long-stroke diesel engines, the LS Series, and plans to market them soon. This new series, with the largest bore/stroke ratio in the UE engine line, meets the recent demand for low-speed, fuel-efficient diesels.

The new LS Series is composed of the UEC 60LS with a cylinder bore of 600 mm, and the UEC 52LS with a 520-mm bore. Their strokes (2,200/1,850 mm) have been extended even further than the LA Series, enabling a reduction in revolutions of about 10 percent compared witht the LA Series.

Maximum rated output has been improved by 13 or 14 percent, to 2,400 bhp per cylinder for the 60LS and 1,800 bhp for the 52LS. At maximum rating, fuel consumption for the 60LS is 122 grams per brake horsepower hour and for the 52LS 123 g/bhph. Mitsubishi quotes what it calls a "capable minimum fuel consumption rate" for these new engines of 116.5 and 117.5 g/bhph, respectively. The 60LS is capable of derating in the range of 75 to 100 rpm, while the 52LS ranges from 90 to 120 rpm.

With the development of the LS Series in addition to the four existing types of LA engines, users are offered a wider range to meet the requirements of varying sizes and types of vessels. The 60LS will be ready for delivery from August 1986, and the 52LS from November 1986.

MTU MTU of North America, Inc., is the U.S.-based subsidiary of MTUFriedrichshafen of West Germany.

The German parent company is jointly owned by Daimler-Benz AG and M.A.N. AG.

The MTU diesel line covers a power output range of 440 to 10,000 bhp at rated speed between 1,000 and 2,400 rpm. Basic design features common to the series are: V-configuration, water cooling, exhaust gas turbocharging, and charge air cooling. All engines are the result of the collective experience gained by Maybach, Mercedes-Benz, and M.A.N, in the development of costeffective, high-performance diesels.

The model 20V 1163 TB 93 engine, introduced in 1983, is evidence of MTU's continued success in its engine development program, which focuses on increasing engine power and power concentration to open new powering possibilities, reducing fuel consumption throughout the entire speed range, extending operating range through higher mean effective pressures, and improving partial-load performance characteristics. MTU employs cylinder cutouts, cylinder charge transfer, and sequential turbocharging in some of its engines.

Power in the 1163 series has been increased from 349 to 496 bhp per cylinder, corresponding to an increase in mep from 305 to 426 psi.

MTU's two-stage turbocharging is also employed in addition to the other systems mentioned. This allows overall engine dimensions to be kept almost constant, and results in a power-to-volume ratio of 11.7 bhp per cubic foot, and a weight-to-power ratio of 4.4 pounds per bhp with the 20V 1163 producing 9,920 bhp. Output of the 396 series engines has also been increased. With a maximum rating of 2,570 bph and a weight of 10,475 pounds, the 16V 396 penetrates a power range that could previously be served only by larger and heavier engines.

PENSKE G M POWER Penske GM Power, Inc. represents Detroit Diesel Allison and Electro-Motive Division products that have survived the test of time and consistently provided the kind of value and dependability that produces results. The company is authorized to carry all Detroit Diesel engines and also offers the EMD 645 Series.

The Penske-engineered Detroit Diesel 8V92TI, a high-performance marine power package, is a compact, heavy-duty engine with a horsepower- to-weight ratio of 6.4 pounds per shp, establishing a new standard for the industry. The 8V 92TI marine propulsion engine was developed using only field-proven components and thoroughly tested by Penske's own dynamometer.

Today's Detroit Diesel and EMD engines incorporate the latest stateof- the-art design modifications, such as low smoke injectors, bypass blowers, high-output turbochargers, aftercoolers, and refined engine timing. More importantly, these features are incorporated into the reliable and affordable engine design that has gained worldwide recognition and offers unsurpassed application and standardization potential. SACM/UNI DIESEL SACM (Societe Alsacienne de Constructiones Mecaniques) in France has adopted a new marketing name, UNI Diesel, for its entire range of medium- and high-speed, four-stroke, direct-injection diesel engines with power ratings of 200 to 10,000 bhp. UNI Diesel is represented in the U.S. by the F.W. Donnelly Company of Houston.

UNI Diesel is a leader in the development of high-performance engines utilizing the RVR and Hyperbar turbocharging techniques, and in nonmagnetic engine versions up to 2,880 bhp. The high-performance engines are used in such applications as the Bell Halter BH-110 SES oil field supply boats, SAR 33 patrol boats, Westamarine catamarine passenger ferries, Statfjord B/C production platforms, ODOCO's Ben Ocean Lancer drillship, and Circle Class minesweepers.

It is UNI Diesel's philosophy to further the development of the performance qualities of its engine range without sacrificing the essential operational qualities, including low specific fuel consumption, long time between overhaul, and ease of operation/maintenance. This development philosophy has resulted in UNI Diesel's now well known RVR turbocharging technique. RVR (reduced volumetric ratio) engines provide significantly more power than conventional high-performance engines while maintaining or slightly reducing the engine's thermal and mechanical stresses. Additional attractive features of these engines include the wide ambient tempera- January 15, 1986 ture range in which the RVR engines may operate without power derating, the simple single-circuit cooling system that is employed, and the elimination of condensed water formation in the air intercoolers. SKINNER ENGINE Skinner Engine Company of Erie, Pa., recently announced that the first marine steam engines specified for a coal-fired ship in more than 30 years have been ordered for the main propulsion power in a Polish ferry that will operate in the Baltic. Delivery of the engine room package is scheduled for October this year. Skinner reported that the multimillion- dollar contract involves two 4-mw multicylinder, compound Uniflow engine sets that will be installed in a train/car ferry being built by Kockums in Sweden for the Polish Baltic Steamship Company. The ferry will operate between Ystad in southern Sweden and Swinoujacie, Poland.

The entire engine room package will be manufactured by an Anglo- American consortium. In addition to Skinner it includes: Peter Brotherhood Limited of Peterborough, U.K., manufacturer of turbine generator sets; Romac Limited of Shoebury, Essex, consortium coordinator; and Senior Green Limited of Wakefield, producers of boilers and automated coal combusion equipment. The Skinner marine compound engine, like most other steam engines, is highly regarded for its low operating maintenance costs and long life. Because it has no minimum continuous operating speed, full torque is available at a dead stall ahead or astern, allowing faster and more effective transfer of power to the propellers. Similarly, it allows rapid and complete reversibility for optimum response in emergency situations. STORK-WERKSPOOR Stork-Werkspoor Diesel BV (SWDiesel) headquartered in Amsterdam is Holland's leading diesel engine manufacturer. Its production program covers an output range from 400 to 21,725 bhp, and consists of five models of four-stroke, medium- speed, heavy-duty engines, all capable of operating on heavy fuel. The company's latest engine type, the SW280, is offered in an in-line configuration with six, eight, or nine cylinders, and in a 12-cylinder Vform version, with outputs ranging from 1,965 to 4,735 bhp.

Special attention in Stork's research and development program was given to the reduction in fuel consumption, resulting in lower figures for the SW280, F/SW240, and DR210 engines. R&D on the wellknown TM410 and TM620 engine types, of which more than 650 have been delivered, has also been successful in meeting market demands for reduced fuel consumption; a reduction in fuel consumption of up to eight percent can be achieved. On a number of 18TM410 engines, a specific fuel consumption as low as 185 grams per kw hour has been recorded under full-load conditions.

These reductions in consumption have been achieved without increasing the combustion pressure. Further reductions are foreseen in the near future. This will be achieved by some increase in the maximum cylinder pressure. Major improvements on these engines include the application of new high-efficiency turboblowers, and valve timing in injection systems to give higher injection pressures.

Operation on heavy fuel is one of the strongest points of SWDiesel engines. The poorest quality fuels have been tested in TM and SW engines. When installed as auxiliary engines, the SW models can use the same heavy fuel as the main engine. SULZER The highly successful Sulzer RTA low-speed engine program has been enlarged by the introduction of two additional bore sizes, the RTA52 and RTA62, as well as a complementary version of the RTA84 having a longer stroke, the RTA84M.

These models will offer greater flexibility in engine selection to key market segments, combined with improved fuel economy.

The RTA 52 and RTA 62 engines cover a maximum continuous rating power range of 3,880 to 19,920 bhp at speeds of 73 to 122 rpm. Together with the well-established RTA58, they thus span the most popular power range for low-speed engines. In 1983, some 70 percent of the total marine low-speed engine market fell within the range of 7,000 to 15,000 bhp per ship.

With the widened choice of RTA engines in this key power range, both shipowner and shipbuilder are offered greater freedom in obtaining a truly optimum match between engine, propeller, and ship. Full benefit can thus be gained from the extremely low brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) available from RTA engines, and also higher propulsive efficiencies at lower propeller speeds. The increased power/ speed options given by these additional RTA bore sizes, combined with the highly cost-effective design of the RTA engines, also insure that ship requirements can be met with lower investment costs.

The RTA84M complements the existing RTA84 by offering lower propeller speeds, down to 55 rpm. Higher propulsive efficiencies will thus be possible in large bulk carriers and tankers that can accommodate larger propeller diameters. The RTA84M covers a power range of 10,120 to 55,200 bhp at speeds of 55 to 76 rpm. The BSFC is down to a minimum of 118 grams per bhp hour at normal service ratings, and 116 g/bhph when using the new Sulzer Efficiency Booster.

VOLVO PENTA Volvo Penta of America's full line of marine diesel engines now ranges from the top-of-the-line TAMD 121C rated at 408 bhp, to its lowerend TAMD 40 rated at 143 bhp. The TAMD 40B is also available with a light-duty rating of 165 bhp. Also available is the AQAD 40B/290 sterndrive with the well-known Volvo Penta Aquamatic outdrive, both standard and DuoProp.

Injection systems and turbochargers have been further optimized on the turbocharged and aftercooled TAMD 60C and TAMD 70E engines, resulting in lower specific fuel consumption and higher output in these 6- and 7-liter, in-line 6-cylinder engines. The TAMD 60C is rated at 250 bhp light duty, 210 bhp medium duty, and 177 bhp on continuous heavy duty. It uses 0.343 pounds of fuel per brake horsepower hour at the continuous rating. The TAMD 70E is rated at 300 bhp light duty, 270 bhp medium duty, and 211 bhp continuous duty, using 0.353 lb/bhph on its continuous rating. Higher output and long-term economy characterize the TMD 100C and TAMD 121C. Redesigned components including cylinder heads, combustion chambers, and turbochargers have boosted output while retaining or improving economy for the 100 and 121 Series engines.

The turbocharged 10-liter TMD 100C engine is available with 283 continuous bhp, 258 medium-duty bhp, and 272 light-duty bhp. Fuel consumption is 0.345 lb/bhph at the 1,800 rpm continuous rating. A complete line of power takeoffs and engine accessories are available for both the TMD 100C and TAMD 121C models.

The turbocharged/aftercooled TAMD 121C is the largest engine currently produced by Volvo Penta. It is rated at 408 bhp for light-duty use, 388 bhp for medium duty, and 367 bhp for full-load continuous duty. At the continuous rating the specific fuel consumption is 0.352 lb/bhph. The TAMD 121C has quickly established a reputation for economical operation throughout the world's workboat fleets.

WARTSILA DIESEL Wartsila Diesel in Finland, a leading manufacturer of mediumspeed diesel engines, is part of the Wartsila Group, which includes shipyards in Helsinki and Turku, Finland. Wartsila specializes in purpose- designed, heavy-fuel diesels for marine propulsion and auxiliary applications, and for power generation on offshore rigs.

The primary objective of the company's product development is to create diesel engines with good economy and safe operation even in the most demanding applications. As a result of these efforts, Wartsila Diesel today is producer of two high-standard, medium-speed, heavy-fuel engines designed and developed from the very beginning for the poorest fuel qualities.

The Wartsila heavy-fuel engine types are the Vasa 32 and Vasa 22HF covering an output range of 760 to 9,180 bhp in a speed range of 720 to 1,200 rpm. The main features of these engines are: starting, stopping, and running on heavy fuel over the entire load range, with no limitations; heavy-fuel operation with the same safety and reliability as when operating on distillate fuel; good total economy due to built-in serviceability, low fuel and lube oil costs, and low spare parts consumption. The technical features of the Wartsila heavy-fuel engines, such as pressure lubrication of the piston skirt, load-dependent cooling water system, and a turbocharging system developed for good low-load performance, combined with a longtime severe environment service experience, give an extra guarantee of reliable and economical operation with the Vasa engines.

WAUKESHA ENGINE An on-going product development program between Waukesha Engine Division of Dresser Industries in Waukesha, Wise., and Sulzer Brothers Ltd., Winterthur, Switzerland, will result in substantially improved fuel rates for the AT25 Series diesel now being produced at Waukesha. The AT25 Series encompasses in-line 6- and 8-cylinder units and V-12 and V-16 models rated from 1,620 to 4,800 bhp. These engines are capable of operating on heavy fuels up to 500 cSt at 50 C. Recent A Series orders placed at the Waukeska factory included 8-, 12-, and 16-cylinder models, both for distillate and heavy fuel applications. Other recent activity includes the addition of an 8.8-liter Scania 6-cylinder model, F517DS. The Scania product line now covers the range 167 to 450 bhp.

VHP Series diesel propulsion and auxiliary drive diesels offer a range of 404 to 1,636 bhp at speeds up to 1,215 rpm.

All of these Waukesha products are now completely described, with photographs, drawings, charts, and specification tables in a new publication, Bulletin 1088C. For your number listed at the top of this writeup.

WICHMANN Wichmann in Norway, represented in the U.S. by Wichmann Diesel, Inc. of Kenner, La., designs and manufactures diesel engines providing fuel efficiency, reliability, and high performance. Its latest model, the WX28, is a compact twostroke, medium-speed diesel designed for heavy fuel and simple maintenance. An integral block and crankcase with fully forged crankshaft are dimensioned for 50-percent future uprating from the initial output of 408 bhp per cylinder. The WX28 is a trunk'piston, 600- rpm diesel with a bore of 280 mm and stroke of 360 mm, supplied in versions from four to 16 cylinders to give outputs in the 1,600-6,435-bhp range. This spectrum offers great flexibility, and most components are interchangeable between the inline and Vee versions. As with other Wichmann engines, a low rpm makes this series particularly suitable for operation on heavy fuels down to 3,500 sec Redwood 1 at 100 F.

Use of the latest design techniques during development has resulted in a very simple valveless configuration. All main components are computer-analyzed for stress and temperature distribution. Another feature that distinguishes this series is the large, high-efficiency turbocharger and scavenging air fan, giving excellent low-load running ability.

The WX28 has a low weight/power ratio, and the compact design provides vessels with higher cargo capacity. The new design also offers improved environmental conditions on board, and more space in the engine room.

Providing fuel efficiency, reliability, and high performance, the WX28 has been designed specifically to offer maximum power with the lowest possible fuel consumption.

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